Professional Practices in Nepal

Professional Practices of engineering in Nepal are guided  • formally by the laws/acts, guidelines, directives, cabinet decisions, standa...

Professional Practices of engineering in Nepal are guided 

• formally by the laws/acts, guidelines, directives, cabinet decisions, standards and codes,
• Guidelines, and code of Ethics of professional bodies like Nepal Engineers’ Association, SCAEF, FCAN, CAN, IEEE
 • informally by the practices in specific institutions

3.1General job description of an engineer in public and private sector

General duties of an engineer are mainly: 
• Design and estimate of specific project, infrastructure etc.
• Preparation of technical specification, tender documents, contract document, agreement paper • Evaluate and supervise the project assigned 
• Allocation of resources
• Work as a member of investigation committee
• Prepare Annual Plan or Project specific plan of activities
• Provide suggestion and recommendation in area of expertise

3.2 Public and Private sector practices

The scope of work carried out by the engineers in the public and private sector covers many areas. The scope of work of each public and private organization is listed in their website
 • In general, the public organization, or an organization which receives public fund, is bounded by Public Procurement Act/Rule.

3.2.1 Private sector practices

In the open market system, there are thousands of private organisations and firms working in engineering sectors 
• Entrepreneurs have used engineers to produce in large quantity in economic investments, • Private sector working more efficiently under strict supervision and motivations 
• More than 50 private engineering colleges affiliated to 7 universities - governmental and nongovernmental. 
• Numerous consultancies, construction companies and firms
• Many computer institutes, training institutes, e-business organisations, hospitals, research centers have employed engineers

Sample List of Public/Semi-Public Organizations where engineers are involved/employed

1. Nepal Telecommunication Authority 
2. Nepal Airlines Corporation 
3. Diary Development Corporation 
4. Nepal Industrial Development Corporation
 5. Nepal Electricity Authority
 6. Nepal Rastra Bank 
7. Agricultural Development Bank 
8. Rastriya Banijya Bank 
10. University Grants Commission 
11. Hetauda Cement Factory 
12. Udayapur Cement Factory 
13. Nepal Telecom 
14. CAAN 
15. Diary Development Corporation 
16. Investment Board Nepal 
17. Salt Trading Corporation 
18. Industrial Estates (Balaju, Patan, Pokhara, Hetauda, …) 
19. Central Bureau of Statistics 
20. Nepal Bureau of Standards and Metrology

3.3 Roles of Professional Associations

Regulate professional practices through enactment of rules and reward and punishment system 
• Develop norms, standards, and codes of professional practices 
• Monitor practices and performance
• Orient new professional members 
• Enhance professionalism through professional development programs
 • Provide platform for knowledge sharing and mutual learning 
• Provide suggestions for development and update of policies/ acts/ laws/ rules/ regulations/ codes
Professional Associations Regulate Profession 
One of the fundamental roles of professional associations is to regulate the professional practices of the persons or institutes engaged in a particular profession. E.g., the FCAN regulates the ways contractors, act when performing duties related to their profession, through: 
• developing guidelines & procedures to be followed by its members,
 • developing minimum standards of profession,
 • developing and issuing codes of conduct for FCAN members, • developing and approving written/unwritten rules of the profession, 
• preparing standard procedure/formats of submitting bids, 
• monitoring and evaluating compliance of the rules, and
 • taking actions against breakers of the rules and/or code of conduct.
 NEC and NEA regulate engineering profession by developing policies, plans/programs for the smooth functioning of engineering profession and execute them. The NEC regulates higher engineering education in Nepal through evaluation, recognition and monitoring of academic institutes providing formal engineering education.

3.3.1 Roles of professional organizations in induction of new entrants into the profession

Another major role of the professional associations is to guide new entrants into the profession by • providing orientation and training,
• guiding on the conventions of the profession, 
• providing information on the dos and don’ts of the profession, • potential pitfalls when the Code of Conduct are not followed, 
• linking the new comers with established members of the profession. 
• Guiding on general job description and employers’ expectation from new recruits
• Training new entrants for job seekers, proposal writing, bidding, project terms and conditions negotiation, etc.

3.3.2 Upgrading and maintaining the professional and technical competence of members of professional association

Professional societies take various steps for upgrading and maintaining the professional and technical competence of its members by
• Organizing regular professional development courses and continuing education programs, like running Engineering Staff College 
• Organizing skill development oriented training programs 
• Organizing regular talk programs to share experiences and lessons learned from different projects • Providing platform for its members to expose their works by organizing national and international seminars/workshops on regular basis 
• Publishing technical journals and news bulletin 
• Organizing exposure field visits to different projects 
• Providing exposure to national and international experiences by organizing national and international visits to its members 
• Proactively working with academic institutes on development and update of university curriculums • Proactively working with research institutes for involving its members in research and development activities 
• Proactively working with service providing organizations (consulting companies, contractors, material suppliers, software developers, equipment operators) to establish link of its members with established organizations.

Some of the ways in which the professional associations in Nepal have been playing this role in Nepal are: 

• Providing Continuing Education Programs (NEA, SCAEF, FCAN, CAN) • Engineering Staff College (proposed by NEA, not yet fulfilled) 
• Provision of Professional Engineer (NEC) 
• Provision of periodic test as part of NEC registration renewal (proposed) 
• Professional Development as part of evaluation of engineering colleges (NEA) 
• Organizing professional meeting/seminar/conferences/conclave: (NEA, SCAEF, FCAN, CAN…) 
• Organizing trainings, weekly lecture series (NEA); 

3.3.3 Providing technical expertise to public authorities in developing policies, acts, standards, project implementation procedures and international agreements and negotiations

The legislators and other governmental organizations frequently
seek technical expertise from professional associations in the
development, drafting and amendments to the existing acts, rules,
regulations, policies, guidelines, bylaws, provisions, plans and
• NEC, NEA, SCAEF, FCAN, CAN and other professional organizations
provide technical expertise to different government organizations,
including legislators, as and when requested. When these
professional associations do not have in-house expertise, they
coordinate with individual (or institutional) members to provide
such services.
• NEA and DPNet independently conducted study of Jure Landslide
(Sunkoshi) in 2014 and submitted expert advice to deal with the

3.3.4 Ensuring occupational health, safety and general welfare of the public

• The professional engineering associations are expected to play the
role of monitors of quality of works of its members, including the
matter of safety and general welfare of the public.
• When a particular member is found to violate the codes of conduct,
compromise on quality of works, and neglect public safety and public
welfare, the concerned professional engineering association can warn
them, and reprimand/cancel their membership.
• NEC is planning to introduce a system of Accountability in Engineering
Professional services.
• The standard design manuals, design procedures, building codes,
including professional judgments will be evaluated as a part of safety
and general welfare of public in engineering works.
• NEC/NEC/ SCAEF/FCAN etc. can monitor provision of occupational
health, safety and general welfare of workers and general public in
specific projects.

3.3.5 Role of professional societies in environment protection

• Raise awareness among society members, public decision makers,
and legislators on environment & sustainable development issues;
work with universities in developing environment protection courses
• Circulate environment protection related acts, rules and regulations
to society members
• Study and publish results of impacts (short term and long term) of
development works on environment
• Develop manuals and guidelines on design, operation and
maintenance of development projects by considering environment
• Conduct training courses on environmental law compliance
• Conduct advocacy programs for environment sensitive development
• Monitor specific development projects from environment protection
aspect and suggest improvements, if needed, in carrying out project
works with environment compliance
• Award organizations with excellent environment protection records.

Self test

Briefly discuss the code of ethics of Nepal Engineering Council.
• Explain the code of ethics applicable to engineering profession.
• What do you understand by the code of conduct? Describe the
code of conduct for engineers.
• How do you judge the ethical standard of Engineers in Nepal?
Describe the role of Nepal Engineering Council in maintaining
ethical standard of Nepalese Engineers.
• Differentiate between the NEA and NEC with suitable examples.
• What are the meaningful roles of professional societies or
associations? Why are they needed? Explain.
• Explain roles of Engineering council and Nepal Engineers
Association. In what regards, they are different?
• What are the general job descriptions of engineers working in
public sector?
• Describe the basic duties of an engineer

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IOE Notes | Notices | Examination | Engineering in Nepal : Professional Practices in Nepal
Professional Practices in Nepal
IOE Notes | Notices | Examination | Engineering in Nepal
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